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Stars History of observations VideoSimply Red - Stars (Official Video) Stars are the most widely recognized astronomical objects, and represent the most fundamental building blocks of galaxies. The age, distribution, and composition of the stars in a galaxy trace the history, dynamics, and evolution of that galaxy. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. Stars are huge celestial bodies made mostly of hydrogen and helium that produce light and heat from the churning nuclear forges inside their cores. Aside from our sun, the dots of light we see in. Stars and planetary systems in fiction Other stars [ edit ] The following is a list of particularly notable actual or hypothetical stars that have their own articles in Wikipedia, but are not included in the lists above. Giant stars have a much lower surface gravity than do main sequence stars, while the opposite is the case for degenerate, compact stars such as white dwarfs. The surface gravity can influence the appearance of a star's spectrum, with higher gravity causing a broadening of the absorption lines. Yes, you can submit a request to that creator, if that creator is currently Auf Welchem Sender Spielt Bayern content that meets our community standards Spirl is living in a country where Stars are enabled. These include intermediate-mass stars such as the sun, with half to eight times the mass of the sun, high-mass stars that are more than eight solar masses, and low-mass stars a tenth to half a solar mass in size. For example, Alpha Buffalo Slots Big Wins Sportergebnisse Live Ticker is about 1. Lada of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. The life cycles of stars follow patterns based mostly on their initial mass. When watching a video from a creator who participates in Stars, you will see a next to Write a comment A number of stars have possessed names since antiquity — Betelgeusefor instance, means "the hand or the armpit of the giant" in Arabic. Monitoring the First Ultraluminous Pulsar. Join our Space Forums to keep talking space on the latest missions, night sky and more! This dead, but still ferociously hot stellar cinder is called a White Dwarf. April über Nacht zum Kinostar. Ein Superstar  bzw. Mandy Moore Sie hat einen "kleinen Kickboxer" im Bauch. Gewalt-Eskalation im Paradies.
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Nowadays astronomers refer to a star's brightness as viewed from Earth as its apparent magnitude, but since the distance between Earth and the star can affect the light one sees from it, they now also describe the actual brightness of a star using the term absolute magnitude, which is defined by what its apparent magnitude would be if it were 10 parsecs or The magnitude scale now runs to more than six and less than one, even descending into negative numbers — the brightest star in the night sky is Sirius , with an apparent magnitude of Luminosity is the power of a star — the rate at which it emits energy.
Although power is generally measured in watts — for instance, the sun's luminosity is trillion trillion watts— the luminosity of a star is usually measured in terms of the luminosity of the sun.
For example, Alpha Centauri A is about 1. To figure out luminosity from absolute magnitude, one must calculate that a difference of five on the absolute magnitude scale is equivalent to a factor of on the luminosity scale — for instance, a star with an absolute magnitude of 1 is times as luminous as a star with an absolute magnitude of 6.
Stars come in a range of colors, from reddish to yellowish to blue. The color of a star depends on surface temperature. A star might appear to have a single color, but actually emits a broad spectrum of colors, potentially including everything from radio waves and infrared rays to ultraviolet beams and gamma rays.
Different elements or compounds absorb and emit different colors or wavelengths of light, and by studying a star's spectrum, one can divine what its composition might be.
Astronomers measure star temperatures in a unit known as the kelvin , with a temperature of zero K "absolute zero" equaling minus A dark red star has a surface temperature of about 2, K 2, C and 4, F ; a bright red star, about 3, K 3, C and 5, F ; the sun and other yellow stars, about 5, K 5, C and 9, F ; a blue star, about 10, K 9, C and 17, F to 50, K 49, C and 89, F.
The surface temperature of a star depends in part on its mass and affects its brightness and color. Specifically, the luminosity of a star is proportional to temperature to the fourth power.
For instance, if two stars are the same size but one is twice as hot as the other in kelvin, the former would be 16 times as luminous as the latter.
Astronomers generally measure the size of stars in terms of the radius of our sun. For instance, Alpha Centauri A has a radius of 1.
Stars range in size from neutron stars, which can be only 12 miles 20 kilometers wide, to supergiants roughly 1, times the diameter of the sun.
The size of a star affects its brightness. Specifically, luminosity is proportional to radius squared. For instance, if two stars had the same temperature, if one star was twice as wide as the other one, the former would be four times as bright as the latter.
Astronomers represent the mass of a star in terms of the solar mass , the mass of our sun. For instance, Alpha Centauri A is 1. Stars with similar masses might not be similar in size because they have different densities.
For instance, Sirius B is roughly the same mass as the sun, but is 90, times as dense, and so is only a fiftieth its diameter. Stars are spinning balls of roiling, electrically charged gas, and thus typically generate magnetic fields.
When it comes to the sun, researchers have discovered its magnetic field can become highly concentrated in small areas, creating features ranging from sunspots to spectacular eruptions known as flares and coronal mass ejections.
A recent survey at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics found that the average stellar magnetic field increases with the star's rate of rotation and decreases as the star ages.
The metallicity of a star measures the amount of " metals " it has — that is, any element heavier than helium. Three generations of stars may exist based on metallicity.
Astronomers have not yet discovered any of what should be the oldest generation, Population III stars born in a universe without "metals.
When a number of these died, they released more heavy elements, and the youngest Population I stars like our sun contain the largest amounts of heavy elements.
Stars are typically classified by their spectrum in what is known as the Morgan-Keenan or MK system. There are eight spectral classes, each analogous to a range of surface temperatures — from the hottest to the coldest, these are O, B, A, F, G, K, M and L.
Each spectral class also consists of 10 spectral types, ranging from the numeral 0 for the hottest to the numeral 9 for the coldest.
Stars are also classified by their luminosity under the Morgan-Keenan system. The largest and brightest classes of stars have the lowest numbers, given in Roman numerals — Ia is a bright supergiant; Ib, a supergiant; II, a bright giant; III, a giant; IV, a subgiant; and V, a main sequence or dwarf.
A complete MK designation includes both spectral type and luminosity class — for instance, the sun is a G2V. The structure of a star can often be thought of as a series of thin nested shells , somewhat like an onion.
A star during most of its life is a main-sequence star, which consists of a core, radiative and convective zones , a photosphere, a chromosphere and a corona.
The core is where all the nuclear fusion takes places to power a star. In the radiative zone, energy from these reactions is transported outward by radiation, like heat from a light bulb, while in the convective zone, energy is transported by the roiling hot gases, like hot air from a hairdryer.
Massive stars that are more than several times the mass of the sun are convective in their cores and radiative in their outer layers, while stars comparable to the sun or less in mass are radiative in their cores and convective in their outer layers.
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How do I report a Page or group accepting Stars? If you believe a video creator accepting Stars is going against any of our standards or policies, you can report their Page or group for review.
If you can't access the Page or group you want to report, consider asking a friend to report it. In January , an amateur astronomer, James McNeil, discovered a small nebula that appeared unexpectedly near the nebula Messier 78, in the constellation of Orion.
When observers around the world pointed their instruments at McNeil's Nebula , they found something interesting — its brightness appears to vary.
Observations with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory provided a likely explanation: the interaction between the young star's magnetic field and the surrounding gas causes episodic increases in brightness.
A star the size of our Sun requires about 50 million years to mature from the beginning of the collapse to adulthood. Our Sun will stay in this mature phase on the main sequence as shown in the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram for approximately 10 billion years.
Stars are fueled by the nuclear fusion of hydrogen to form helium deep in their interiors. The outflow of energy from the central regions of the star provides the pressure necessary to keep the star from collapsing under its own weight, and the energy by which it shines.
As shown in the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram, Main Sequence stars span a wide range of luminosities and colors, and can be classified according to those characteristics.
Despite their diminutive nature, red dwarfs are by far the most numerous stars in the Universe and have lifespans of tens of billions of years.
On the other hand, the most massive stars, known as hypergiants, may be or more times more massive than the Sun, and have surface temperatures of more than 30, K.
Hypergiants emit hundreds of thousands of times more energy than the Sun, but have lifetimes of only a few million years.
Although extreme stars such as these are believed to have been common in the early Universe, today they are extremely rare - the entire Milky Way galaxy contains only a handful of hypergiants.
In general, the larger a star, the shorter its life, although all but the most massive stars live for billions of years. When a star has fused all the hydrogen in its core, nuclear reactions cease.
Deprived of the energy production needed to support it, the core begins to collapse into itself and becomes much hotter. Hydrogen is still available outside the core, so hydrogen fusion continues in a shell surrounding the core.
The increasingly hot core also pushes the outer layers of the star outward, causing them to expand and cool, transforming the star into a red giant. If the star is sufficiently massive, the collapsing core may become hot enough to support more exotic nuclear reactions that consume helium and produce a variety of heavier elements up to iron.
However, such reactions offer only a temporary reprieve. Gradually, the star's internal nuclear fires become increasingly unstable - sometimes burning furiously, other times dying down.
These variations cause the star to pulsate and throw off its outer layers, enshrouding itself in a cocoon of gas and dust.
What happens next depends on the size of the core. Universe Learn About This Image. Stars Stars are the most widely recognized astronomical objects, and represent the most fundamental building blocks of galaxies.
Star Formation Stars are born within the clouds of dust and scattered throughout most galaxies. Black Holes.
The Big Bang. Helpful Links Organization and Staff. Astrophysics Fleet Mission Chart. Spacecraft Paper Models.
Related Content Mysteries of the Sun. Death of Stars video. Life Cycles of Stars. More About Stars. Stellar Evolution. Recommended Articles. July 14,Retrieved 17 June Nowadays astronomers refer to a star's brightness as viewed from Earth as its apparent magnitude, but since the distance between Earth and the star can affect the light one sees from it, they now also describe the actual brightness Handball Wm Russland Deutschland a star using the Online Casino Betting absolute magnitude, which is defined by what its apparent magnitude would be if Dino Rush were 10 parsecs or Near the end of the star's life, fusion continues along a series of onion-layer shells within a massive star.